Posted by Hatka Hatnaa Posted on 5:34:00 AM
Breeding is seasonal and generally occurs during the warm months, ranging from late spring
through early fall. Males may travel hundreds of metres to find receptive females. It appears that males find females by localizing a pheromone that the female emits from the end of her abdomen. Mating in scorpions is preceded by a complicated and characteristic courtship initiated by the male. He first faces and grasps the female, using his pincers (pedipalps). Then the pair, directed by the male, moves sideways and backward in a dancelike motion called promenade à deux. These actions result from the efforts of the pair to find a smooth surface on which the male can extrude a glandular secretion that forms a stalk to which the spermatophore (sperm-containing structure) is attached. He then maneuvers the female so that her genital opening contacts the spermatophore. Once she is positioned over the spermatophore, physical contact with it causes spermatozoa to be ejected into the genital opening (gonopore) of the female. Males that remain near females after mating are sometimes killed and eaten.
In general, females mate multiple times. In some species, mating must occur after each clutch of offspring is produced in order to fertilize another clutch of eggs. In others, multiple clutches of offspring can be produced from the sperm stored from a single mating. There are at least two species known that can produce offspring without mating at all (parthenogenesis).
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