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Despite being venomous predators, scorpions are valuable as prey because many are relatively

large and quite abundant. Birds (mostly owls), lizards, a few small snakes, mammals (some rodents and carnivores), and frogs and toads all eat scorpions. A few vertebrates even specialize on scorpions, at least seasonally. Some scorpions are their own worst enemies, with both cannibalism and predation on other species being common. Such predation can be a major mortality factor and may limit the abundance and distribution of some species. A few large arthropods (spiders, solpugids, centipedes) also eat scorpions.Scorpions exhibit several antipredator adaptations. The most obvious is the venom-conducting stinger. Venom has dual functions: offensive and defensive. One of its chemical components is toxic to arthropods (for prey capture), while another is active against vertebrates (for predator deterrence). Nocturnal activity and scorpions’ tendency to keep hidden may have evolved to avoid predation. Most species are active for only a few hours on 20 to 50 percent of all nights in a year. Many predators, however, are able to handle scorpions safely. Most vertebrate predators will bite or break off the scorpion’s tail. Some vertebrates and arthropods are immune to scorpion venom, even from species that are lethal to humans.
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